American Countercultures: An Encyclopedia of Nonconformists, by Gina Misiroglu

By Gina Misiroglu

Counterculture, whereas usual to explain youth-oriented hobbies throughout the Nineteen Sixties, refers to any try to problem or switch traditional values and practices or the dominant life of the day. This interesting three-volume set explores those events in the United States from colonial instances to the current in colourful aspect. "American Countercultures" is the 1st reference paintings to envision the influence of countercultural routine on American social historical past. It highlights the writings, recordings, and visible works produced via those routine to coach, motivate, and incite motion in all eras of the nation's historical past. A-Z entries supply a wealth of data on personalities, areas, occasions, strategies, ideals, teams, and practices. The set contains quite a few illustrations, an issue finder, basic resource records, a bibliography and a filmography, and an index.

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Extra info for American Countercultures: An Encyclopedia of Nonconformists, Alternative Lifestyles, and Radical Ideas in U.S. History: An Encyclopedia of Nonconformists, ... and Radical Ideas in U.S. History

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New York: Black Dog & Leventhal, 2001. Afrocentrism Afrocentrism is a political, social, educational, and scholarly movement that challenges traditional interpretations of the black experience in an attempt to encourage black nationalism and ethnic pride as a psychological weapon against racial oppression. Afrocentrists argue that traditional interpretations of the black experience have been marred by racism and are therefore suspect; many claim that the Eurocentric interpretation has led to the neglect and denial of African contributions in world history.

Most scholars trace the beginning of African American culture in North America to the year 1619, when Dutch settlers imported the first twenty Africans (seventeen men and three women) to Jamestown, Virginia, as indentured servants. Although Africans were the only group forced to migrate to the American colonies in large numbers, they, like Europeans, forged new cultures by adapting their native ways to the new environment, often mixing their ideas with those of Native Americans and Europeans. Because of African Americans’ slave status, however, their traditions were generally viewed as countercultural where they differed from English (and later other European) norms.

Jay deFeo was one of the few female stars of San Francisco’s Beat literary-artistic scene. For the artists themselves, abstract expressionism represented a revolutionary aesthetic that allowed them to explore and articulate the fears and anxieties of an alienating consumer culture and the atomic threat. Critical of modern society and supremely individualistic, abstract expressionists tended to avoid association with any one political ideology. Yet the inherent open-endedness of abstract expressionism lent it a subversive quality in the conservative era of cold war ideology, McCarthyism, and red baiting.

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