By Bryan Kolb, Ian Q. Whishaw
Read Online or Download An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition PDF
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Additional resources for An Introduction to Brain and Behavior, Third Edition
For example, insects have ganglia in the head that are sufficiently large to merit the term brain. One phylum, Sensory and motor the chordates, of which frogs and humans are members, displays the connections to internal greatest degree of encephalization. body organs Chordates get their name from the notochord, a flexible rod that runs the length of the back. In humans, the notochord is present only in the embryo; by birth, bony vertebrae encase the spinal cord. Although the nervous systems of prechordates, such as ants, and of chordates, such as frogs and humans, have FIGURE 1-8 Evolution of the Nervous many anatomical differences, the nervous systems of all are formed under the instrucSystem.
Wide variation exists in the nervous systems of chordates, but the basic pattern of a structure that is bilaterally symmetrical, is segmented, and has a spinal cord and brain encased in cartilage or bone is common to all. In addition, as chordates evolved limbs and new forms of locomotion, their brains be- What Are the Origins of Brain and Behavior? Chondrichthyes Agnatha (lampreys and hagfish) (sharks and rays) Osteichthyes (bony fishes) Amphibia (frogs and salamanders) Reptilia (reptiles) Aves (birds) 17 Mammalia (mammals) Large brains Limbs Common ancestor came larger.
If the genes for a trait are passed on to offspring, the offspring also will have the same trait. New traits appear because new gene combinations are inherited from parents, because existing genes change or mutate, because suppressed genes are reexpressed, because expressed genes are suppressed, or because genes or parts of genes are deleted or duplicated. Materialism Philosophical position that holds that behavior can be explained as a function of the nervous system without explanatory recourse to the mind.