By Peter B. Golden
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Additional info for An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples: Ethnogenesis and State-formation in Medieval and Early Modern Eurasia and the Middle East (Turcologica)
120, and many others, view ôküz as a borrowing from Tokhar. B. okso. 41 Marquart, Wehrot, p. 31ff. 42 Clauson, ED,pp. 119-120 who notes it as a loan-word in Mong. üyer and Gamkrelidze, lvanov, Indoevropejcy, II, p. 940 43 Musaev, Leksikologija, p. 129. 44 ~émeth, 1942-47, pp. 90-93. 32 INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES According to one school of thought, it is probably not to be connected with the people who gave their name to the region of Afghanistan known in the medieval Islamic sources as Tuxâristân (discussed in Chap.
45 In short, it seems most unlikely that IE or even Indo-Iranian elements entered Turkic before the breakup of lE and then Indo-Iranian unity ca. C. C. via Iranian and Tokharian, serving, perhaps, as :middlemen for terms from Indic. This would put the Turkic-speakers in the west of the Altaic world, but still weil to the east in an Inner Asian setting. The question of the Turkic Urheimat is again addressed in Chap. 5. Tokharian within lE belonged to the so-called centum or western grouping. It was spoken and written (in the Indic Brahmi and Sogdian scripts) in Eastern Turkistan, in two variants, "Tokharian A" (Arsi or the language of Agni Qara Sahr) and "Tokharian B" (the language of Kuca) which are qui te different from one another.
There is no need to provide similar data for Korean and Japanese, the relationship of which to Altaic is much-debated and lies weil beyond the scope of this work. THE OTHER lANGUAGES OF EURASIA To the north and east of the Al taie languages there existed a number of language groupings. Of the richness and variety of Siberian languages we can judge only by the few scattered surviving remnants. The relationship of the Amerindian languages (which consist of a number of distinct language families) and of elements that contributed to the formation of Japanese to languages that existed in Pre-historie Siberia can only be conjectured.