Ancient Rome : from the earliest times down to 476 A. D. by Robert F. Pennell

By Robert F. Pennell

Robert Franklin Pennell (1850, Maine – 1905, San Francisco) was once an American educator and classicist.

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Scipio set sail for Spain, touching at Massilia near the end of June. Learning there for the first time that Hannibal had already left Spain, he hoped to intercept him on the Rhone. The Celtic tribes of the neighborhood were won over to his side. Troops collected from these were stationed along the river, but Scipio's main army remained at Massilia. It was Hannibal's policy to cross the river before Scipio 52 arrived with his troops. He obtained all the boats possible, and constructed numerous rafts to transport his main body of troops.

The Carthaginians were engaged during the first part of this time in crushing a mutiny of their mercenary troops. Rome, taking advantage of the position in which her rival was placed, seized upon SARDINIA and CORSICA, and, when Carthage objected, threatened to renew the war, and obliged her to pay more than one million dollars as a fine (237). The acquisition of Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica introduced into the government of Rome a new system; viz. the PROVINCIAL SYSTEM. Heretofore the two chief magistrates of Rome, the Consuls, had exercised their functions over all the Roman possessions.

Rome was now safe from any attack. She had become a great Mediterranean power. Spain was divided into two provinces, and the north of Africa was under her protection. 63 CHAPTER XVI ROME IN THE EAST ROME was now in a position to add new nations to her list of subjects. The kingdoms of the East which formerly composed a part of the vast empire of Alexander the Great, and which finally went to swell the limits of Roman authority, were Egypt, Syria, Macedonia, and Greece proper. EGYPT was governed by the Ptolemies, and included at this time the valley of the Nile, Palestine, Phoenicia, the island of Cyprus, and a number of towns in Thrace.

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