By Bernard Lazare
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Extra resources for Antisemitism: Its History and Causes
L. XXII. 37 Ep. CLI, Quaest, 10, Migne, P. , XXXIII. 38 Adversus Judaeos, 10, Migne, P. , XLVIII. 39 Eusebius, Vita Constantini, III, 18, 20. 40 Codex Justinianeus, 1. I, tit. IX, 16. 41 Codex Theodosianus, 1. XVI, tit. IX, 3, 4, 5. 42 Codex Justinianeus 1. I, tit. IX, 6. 43 Cod. , b. XVI, tit. viii, 5. 44 Code Theodosien, 1. XVI, tit. VIII, 28. 45 Codex Justinianeus, 1. I, tit. IX, 17 and Cod. , 1. XVI, tit. VIII, 14. 46 Codex Justinianeus, 1. I, tit. IX, 18. 47 Justinianus, Novellae, 45. 48 Codex Justinianeus, 1.
They were not allowed to testify against Christians or to maintain an action in court against them, or to hold public office. These laws which had been enacted one by one, were not always enforced by the Visigoth lords, who were independent, in a way, but the clergy doubled their efforts to procure their strict enforcement. The object of the bishops and the dignitaries of the church was to bring about the conversion of the Jews and to kill the spirit of Judaism in Spain and the secular authority lent them its support.
The imprint received by the peoples of Spain from Judaism, endured for centuries, and that land was the last to witness once more the contest, with almost equal weapons, between the Jewish and the Christian spirit. More than once Spain came very near becoming Jewish, and to write the history of that country until the fifteenth century means to write the history of the Jews, for they were intimately connected in a most remarkable way, with its literature and intellectual, national, moral and economic development.