Antisemitism: Its History and Causes by Bernard Lazare

By Bernard Lazare

Bernard Lazare's debatable magnum opus, initially released in France in 1894, asks why the Jews have aroused such hatred for 3 thousand years. The journalist, even though severed from his Jewish upbringing, was once fiercely dedicated to social justice and will now not forget about a stunning antisemitism within the fin-de-siècle circles he knew. In seek mg for its historical explanations, he was once additionally trying to find his personal roots and position on the earth. As biographer Nelly Wilsonhas famous, younger Lazare was once "constantly engaged in a discussion with himself" whilst he wrote Antisemitism, Its heritage and Causes.
 
Lazare starts off his "impartial examine" through contemplating no matter what within the Jewish personality will be responsible for antisemitism. Then he seems to be outward to these international locations between which the Israelites dispersed, studying different faces of antisemitism from Greco-Roman antiquity to the top of the 19th century. Lazare brings his examine and research to endure on no matter what shape antisemitism has taken: ethnic, nationalist, fiscal, social, literary, philosophical. spotting that antisemitism is essentially in accordance with worry of the stranger and the necessity for a scapegoat, Lazare concludes with a stunning situation for the long run. This notable ebook conveys Lazare's personal religious development. France's Dreyfus Affair within the Eighteen Nineties could impress him to a passionate conflict opposed to antisemitism.

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L. XXII. 37 Ep. CLI, Quaest, 10, Migne, P. , XXXIII. 38 Adversus Judaeos, 10, Migne, P. , XLVIII. 39 Eusebius, Vita Constantini, III, 18, 20. 40 Codex Justinianeus, 1. I, tit. IX, 16. 41 Codex Theodosianus, 1. XVI, tit. IX, 3, 4, 5. 42 Codex Justinianeus 1. I, tit. IX, 6. 43 Cod. , b. XVI, tit. viii, 5. 44 Code Theodosien, 1. XVI, tit. VIII, 28. 45 Codex Justinianeus, 1. I, tit. IX, 17 and Cod. , 1. XVI, tit. VIII, 14. 46 Codex Justinianeus, 1. I, tit. IX, 18. 47 Justinianus, Novellae, 45. 48 Codex Justinianeus, 1.

They were not allowed to testify against Christians or to maintain an action in court against them, or to hold public office. These laws which had been enacted one by one, were not always enforced by the Visigoth lords, who were independent, in a way, but the clergy doubled their efforts to procure their strict enforcement. The object of the bishops and the dignitaries of the church was to bring about the conversion of the Jews and to kill the spirit of Judaism in Spain and the secular authority lent them its support.

The imprint received by the peoples of Spain from Judaism, endured for centuries, and that land was the last to witness once more the contest, with almost equal weapons, between the Jewish and the Christian spirit. More than once Spain came very near becoming Jewish, and to write the history of that country until the fifteenth century means to write the history of the Jews, for they were intimately connected in a most remarkable way, with its literature and intellectual, national, moral and economic development.

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